Life expectancy for individuals who reach age 65 has been steadily increasing. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, life expectancy for older individuals improved mainly in the latter half of the 20th century, 这主要是由于医学的进步, 更好地获得卫生保健, 和更健康的生活方式. Someone reaching age 65 in 1950 could expect to live approximately 14 years longer (until about age 79), while the average 65-year-old American today can expect to live about another 19 years (to age 84) (Source: National Vital Statistics Report, 卷61, 4号, 2013年5月). So when considering how much retirement income you’ll need, it’s not unreasonable to plan for a retirement that will last for 25 years or more.
Consider this–Do you spend more money on days you’re working or on days you’re not working? One of the biggest retirement planning mistakes you can make is to underestimate the amount you’ll spend in retirement. One often hears that you’ll need 70% to 80% of your preretirement income after you retire. 然而, depending on your lifestyle and individual circumstances, it’s not inconceivable that you may need to replace 100% or more of your preretirement income.
In order to estimate how much you’ll need to accumulate, you need to estimate the expenses you’re likely to incur in retirement. 你打算去旅行吗? 你的抵押贷款还清了吗? Might you have significant health-care expenses not covered by insurance or Medicare? Try thinking about your current expenses and how they might change between now and the time you retire.
You may presume that when you reach age 65, Medicare will cover most health-care costs. 但是医疗保险并不能覆盖所有的东西. Examples of services generally not covered by traditional Medicare include most chiropractic, 牙科, 和视力保健. And don’t forget the cost of long-term care–Medicare doesn’t pay for custodial (nonskilled) long-term care services, and Medicaid pays only if you and your spouse meet certain income and asset criteria. 没有适当的计划, health-care costs can sap retirement income in a hurry, 让你陷入财务困境.
Plus there’s the cost of the Medicare coverage itself. While Medicare Part A (hospital insurance) is free for most Americans, you’ll pay at least $104.90 each month in 2014 if you choose Medicare Part B (medical insurance), plus an average of $31 per month if you also want Medicare Part D (prescription coverage). 除了, there are co-pays and deductibles to consider–unless you pay an additional premium for a Medigap policy that covers all or some of those out-of-pocket expenses. (作为传统医疗保险的替代方案, you can enroll in a Medicare Advantage (Part C) managed care plan; costs and coverages vary.)
4. I’ll use my newfound leisure hours to ______ (fill in the blank)
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012 American Time Use Survey, retirees age 65 and older spent an average of 8 hours per day in leisure activities. (休闲活动包括运动, 阅读, 看电视, 社交活动, 放松和思考, 打牌, 使用电脑, 和参加艺术, 娱乐, 及文化活动.相比之下，平均水平是5.4 hours per day for those age 65 and older who were still working.
那么退休人员是如何使用他们额外的2.6小时的休闲时间? 嗯，他们花了大部分钱.6小时)看电视. In fact, according to the survey, retirees actually spent 4.5 of their total 8 leisure hours per day watching TV.
And despite the fact that many workers cite a desire to travel when they retire, 退休人员实际上只多花了18分钟, 平均, per day than their working counterparts engaged in “other leisure activities,包括旅行.