当市场偏离轨道时, knowing why you originally made a specific investment can help you evaluate whether those reasons still hold, 不管整个市场在做什么. Understanding how a specific holding fits into your overall portfolio can also help you consider whether a lower price might actually represent a buying opportunity. If you’re not really sure what role a security plays in your portfolio, 知道永远不晚. 这些知识可能很重要, especially if you’re considering replacing your current holding with another investment.
Setting predetermined guidelines that recognize the potential for turbulent times can help prevent emotion from dictating your decisions. 例如, 你可以采用核心和卫星的方法, combining the use of buy-and-hold principles for the bulk of your portfolio with tactical investing based on a shorter-term market outlook. If you’re an active investor, a trading discipline can help you stick to a long-term strategy. 例如, you might determine in advance that you will take profits when a security or index rises by a certain percentage, 当股价下跌一定百分比时买入. You also can use diversification to try to offset the risks of certain holdings with those of others. Diversification may not guarantee a profit or protect against the possibility of loss, but it can help you understand and balance your risk in the future.
Asset allocation generally is responsible for most of the variance in portfolio returns. 如果你有一个多样化的投资组合, it could be useful to compare its performance to relevant benchmarks. If your investments are at least matching those benchmarks, that realization might help you feel better about the your long-term strategy. Just because a particular index may have dropped doesn’t necessarily mean your entire portfolio is down by the same amount. Even when everything seems to be struggling, some asset classes may be struggling less than others.
从历史上看，股市是周期性的. Though past performance is no guarantee of future results, there have been a half-dozen previous bear markets–declines of 20% or more–since the early 1970s,*虽然这可能需要一段时间, 每次市场最终都会反弹. Even if you wish you had sold at what turned out to be a market peak, 或者后悔错过了买入机会, 你将来可能还会有机会的. Neither the ups nor the downs are likely to last forever, even though at the time they may feel as though they will. Even in the midst of the Great Depression, there were short-term rallies and trading opportunities. 在某些情况下, people built fortunes over time by investing carefully just when things seemed bleakest. Even if you feel you need to make changes in your portfolio, 它们不一定要同时发生. 不要犹豫寻求专家的帮助. *资料来源:2011年股票交易员年鉴
If you feel you need to make changes in your portfolio, 有很多方法可以做到这一点，而不需要完全的改造. You could test the waters by redirecting a small percentage of one asset class into another. You could put any new money into a type of investment you feel is well-positioned for the future. You could set a stop-loss order to prevent your investment in a security from falling below a certain level, or have an informal threshold below which you will not allow a given investment to fall before selling. 尽管所有的投资都有风险, 包括可能的本金损失, and there can be no guarantee that any strategy will be successful, there are many possible ways to pursue your investment goals. Getting expert help can assist you in determining which if any might be useful to you.